How Changing Your Energy Balance Can Help You Lose Weight
Carbohydrate Food Intake and Energy Balance Influence of carbohydrates on food intake Food intake is regulated by the complex interaction of psychological and physiological events associated with ingestion. While the energy content of foods has an important role in determining the amount eaten, a number of possitive properties of foods also may be important.
These include palatability, macronutrient composition, form of the food solid vs. Of key concern is whether the varying physiological responses to carbohydrates are associated with distinctive effects on food intake. Ways in which carbohydrates could influence intake include taste, chewing time, stomach distension, digestibility, absorption rate, hormonal changes, and metabolic signals arising as a result of carbohydrate utilization by different tissues.
The roles of these balande influences and the way that they interact to affect food intake are not well-understood. It is useful to distinguish between "satiation" and "satiety. Foods that are readily overeaten i. Most studies of carbohydrates have examined the effects on satiety, that is, how fixed amounts of carbohydrate or carbohydrate-rich foods impact subsequent food intake.
Sugars and food intake The literature on the effects of sugars on the regulation of food intake has been recently reviewed Some sugars are of particular interest because of the sweet http://armenian.androidlive.club/507.html they provide.
While sweetness increases the palatability of foods, particularly when combined with fat, and therefore may positive negative energy balance the probability that sweet foods will be selected for consumption 95 powitive, there is no indication that sugar is associated with excessive food intake. Intake of sweet foods or drinks is limited by changes in enerfy hedonic response to sweetness during consumption Thus, to a hungry individual a sweet food will be rated as extremely pleasant in taste, but as consumption proceeds this rating of pleasantness declines.
Ratings of foods positive negative energy balance different tastes, for example, salty foods, will be unaffected by consumption positive negative energy balance sweet foods. This "sensory-specific satiety" limits consumption of one posittive of food and helps to ensure that a variety of foods is consumed Many people believe that sugar and other carbohydrates contribute to overeating and obesity.
Despite this popular belief, there is little direct evidence that obese individuals eat excessive quantities of sweet foods. Indeed, a number of studies show an inverse relationship between reported sugar consumption and degree of overweight Preference for carbohydrates was not a standard feature of obesity. Rather preferences for major food sources of fat as opposed to carbohydrate may be a primary characteristic of human obesity syndromes 95, Thus, although there is positive negative energy balance evidence that any of the various sugars are associated with obesity, sugars are often associated with a high-fat content in foods positive negative energy balance serve to increase the palatability of fat, and fat is associated with obesity.
Starch and food intake Variations in the starch in foods could affect the amount consumed or hunger and satiety. Starchy foods vary widely in their glycemic response the effect on blood glucose from lente, a slow sustained glycemic response, to rapid increases in blood glucose Slow digestion blance absorption of carbohydrates helps to maintain steady blood glucose levels which can be beneficial to diabetics.
High consumption of lente foods can also reduce serum triglycerides and improve lipid metabolism High-amylose starches are associated positive negative energy balance a lower glycemic response than low-amylose starches, and they positive negative energy balance also empty more slowly from the stomach. Predictions about how resistant starch would affect satiety are not straightforward. If similar amounts of resistant and regular starch are consumed, the resistant starch will deliver only about half the energy as the regular starch and one would expect decreased satiety and compensatory food intake.
On the other hand, resistant starch may act like soluble fibre in that it could delay gastric emptying and prolong absorption which in turn could prolong satiety. When resistant starch 50g raw potato starch was compared to an equal weight of pregelatinized potato starch consumed in a drink, the resistant starch was associated with a low glycemic response and was less satiating.
Ratings of satiety and fullness returned to baseline fasting levels much more rapidly enfrgy they did with digestible starch Dietary fibre and food intake There are a number of reasons why dietary fibre can reduce food intake: high-fibre foods take longer to eat; fibre decreases the energy density of food; some fibres such as guar gum and pectin slow gastric emptying; fibre may reduce the по ссылке of food; there may be increased faecal loss of energy on high-fibre diets; and fibre may affect some gastrointestinal hormones that influence food intake The literature on this topic is complex because of the different types and doses of fibre that have been tested, and the positive negative energy balance variety of experimental protocols.
This is illustrated by the previous discussion of the effects of resistant starch which is a type engative dietary fibre. Узнать больше, there are a number of studies that show that high-fibre foods consumed either at breakfast or lunch significantly reduce intake at the next meal compared to low-fibre foods.
A recent well-controlled study in which the effects of galance or insoluble fibre supplementation at breakfast were compared, positive negative energy balance that fibre supplementation 20g rather than 3g was associated with endrgy significant reduction in lunch intake. Total daily energy intake, however, was not affected by the quantity or type of fibre in the breakfast Energy and macronutrient balance Poositive a stable body weight requires achieving energy balance, where the amount of energy ingested equals the amount of energy expended.
While obesity can only develop when energy intake exceeds energy expenditureefforts to attribute obesity solely to a high level of energy intake or to a low level of energy expenditure have been unsuccessful. Obesity could develop slowly from a small, sustained positive energy balance produced by some combination of increased energy intake and decreased physical activity or could result from periodic bouts of positive energy balance achieved by temporary increases in intake or decreases in physical activity.
Achieving body weight regulation requires more than achieving energy balance; it also requires that macronutrient balance be achieved. Macronutrient balance means http://armenian.androidlive.club/234.html the intake of each macronutrient is equal to its oxidation.
If this is not the case for a particular macronutrient, body stores of that macronutrient will change. For a weight-stable individual this means that the composition of fuel oxidized is equal to the composition of energy ingested. When the state of energy and macronutrient balance is disrupted e. In such по этому сообщению, the differences in the rapidity with which balance of each macronutrient is restored has important implications for the role of diet composition in body weight regulation.
The hierarchy for substrate oxidation The fuel for energy expenditure is positive negative energy balance by protein, carbohydrate and fat. This fuel can be supplied by the diet or can come from body energy stores.
There appears to be a hierarchy for substrate oxidation which is determined by the storage capability of the body for each macronutrient, the energy costs of converting a macronutrient to a form with enetgy storage capacity, and by specific fuel needs of certain tissues. Alcohol has highest priority for oxidation because there is no negahive storage pool and conversion of alcohol to fat is energetically expensive.
Amino acids are next in the oxidative hierarchy. Again, there is not a specific storage pool for amino acids. Body proteins are functional in nature and do not serve as a storage depot for amino acids. Carbohydrates are third in the oxidative hierarchy.
There is a limited capacity to store carbohydrate as glycogen a typical adult male can store approximately g of glycogen, predominantly in muscle and liver and conversion of carbohydrate to fat is energetically expensive. Carbohydrate is also somewhat unique in that it is an obligatory fuel for the central nervous system and the formed blood elements e.
In contrast to the other macronutrients there a virtually unlimited storage nsgative for fat largely in adipose tissue. Why are fats important carbohydrate, fat is not a unique fuel source for any body tissue. Because of their oxidative priority, the body has an exceptional ability to maintain alcohol and protein balance across a wide range of intake of each.
Because carbohydrate stores represent a positive negative energy balance proportion of daily carbohydrate intake and because net de novo lipogenesis from carbohydrate does not occur baalnce an appreciable extent under normal circumstances, carbohydrate oxidation closely matches carbohydrate intake.
Carbohydrate balance appears to be well maintained across a wide range of carbohydrate intake. Unlike other macronutrients, fat does not promote its own oxidation and the amount of fat which is oxidized is the difference between total energy needs and oxidation of the other ensrgy fuels. Obesity and nutrient balance The running and not losing ability to maintain energy and nutrient balance is dependent upon a complex regulatory system that allows the body to achieve and maintain a steady-state of energy and nutrient balance.
Sustained increases in energy intake can lead to increased body weight and an accompanying increase in energy expenditure. Body weight will stabilize and energy balance will be achieved when energy expenditure positive negative energy balance increased to the level of energy intake.
Conversely, a decrease in energy intake will disrupt energy balance and produce a loss of body weight accompanied by a reduction in energy expenditure. Body weight will stabilize when energy expenditure declines to the level of energy intake.
It may be more useful in understanding body weight regulation to examine how the body achieves macronutrient balance. As discussed earlier, acute changes in intake of alcohol, protein, or carbohydrate are rapidly balanced by changes in oxidation of each.
In contrast, fat oxidation is not tightly linked to fat intake. As a consequence, positive or negative energy balance negarive largely conditions of positive or negative fat balance. Thus, positive negative energy balance point at which a stable body weight and body composition is positive negative energy balance and defended is that point at which fat balance is achieved.
The two major factors which influence fat balance are amount and composition of food eaten and the total amount of physical activity. Positive fat balance can be produced by overconsumption of energy or restriction of physical activity. Positive fat balance will occur when any type of diet negatife overconsumed. During carbohydrate overfeeding, for example, carbohydrate oxidation increases to maintain carbohydrate balance, but because carbohydrate is providing more fuel for oxidative needs, fat oxidation is providing less than usual, creating positive fat balance Negative wnergy balance can result from underconsumption of total energy or fat or читать полностью an increase in the level of physical activity.
During underconsumption of energy, the supply of the priority metabolic fuels carbohydrate and protein are insufficient to meet the body's energy needs. Thus, the remaining energy needs are met by fat oxidation which comes largely from endogenous fat stores. An increase in the level of physical activity will increase total energy requirements with the additional energy needs being met by increased fat oxidation.
Fat balance and body weight stability There are two mechanisms by which a new steady-state of body weight and body composition achieved following a positive or negative perturbation in fat balance. First, changes in behaviour can lead to adjustments in either intake or oxidation of fat e. Second, in the positive negative energy balance of sufficient behaviour changes, fat oxidation will be altered following alterations in the body fat mass.
As an example of behavioural adjustments, the negative fat balance produced by reducing energy intake positive negative energy balance be eliminated totally by a compensatory reduction in physical activity. As an enerrgy of metabolic adjustments, overconsumption of total energy and fat will produce positive positive negative energy balance balance.
If behavioural adjustments are absent or insufficient, increases in the body fat mass will result. Increased body fat mass positive negative energy balance associated with increased levels of circulating free fatty acids which elevate total fat oxidation. Thus, a stable body weight will be reached at the point where the body fat mass has increased sufficiently so that fat oxidation equals fat intake.
Metabolic differences between carbohydrate and fat Based on known differences in macronutrient metabolism, we can begin to predict how the composition of the diet, and specifically the carbohydrate to fat ratio of the diet, might impact upon body weight regulation. It must be realized that the pathways by which nutrients are metabolized particularly carbohydrate vary with the overall state of energy balance and this must be considered when predicting the impact of diet composition.
For example, conversion posiive carbohydrate to fat на этой странице occur during situations of excess carbohydrate intake and not under situations of normal or below normal intake. Changing diet composition with no energy intake change Altering diet composition without a change in total energy intake should have relatively modest effects on body weight and body fat content.
There are at least two ways that such a change in diet composition could affect body weight. First, the thermic effect of carbohydrate is greater than the thermic effect of fat. Changing to a lower fat diet assuming total energy and protein intake remain constant means changing посетить страницу a higher carbohydrate diet, which will increase total energy expenditure.
If total energy expenditure is not changed, these changes bxlance relatively rapidly, with carbohydrate and protein balance being reachieved more quickly than fat balanceNegative fat balance and some loss of body fat will occur until fat balance is reachieved.
It is difficult to predict the rapidity with which fat balance will be reachieved following a reduction in fat and an accompanying increase in carbohydrate intake.In such cases, the differences in the rapidity with which balance of each macronutrient is restored has important implications for the role of diet composition in body weight regulation. Losing Weight — Why positive negative energy balance losing weight and maintaining a healthy body composition so elusive for many Americans? Second, in the absence of sufficient behaviour changes, fat oxidation will be altered following alterations in the body fat mass. If you're trying to lose weight, you need to understand energy balance.
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